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Michael Hayes

Michael Hayes

Executive Director, MSCI Research

Michael Hayes leads MSCI’s research on fixed income, derivatives and model validation. His current responsibilities include building tools to facilitate and streamline systematic credit investing. Prior to MSCI, Michael worked implementing and supporting all aspects of systematic credit, including signal generation, risk and portfolio management and foreign-exchange and interest-rate hedging. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in chemistry from Princeton University and a doctorate in chemical physics from the University of Colorado Boulder.

Research and Insights

Articles by Michael Hayes

    Does the CoCo Market Have Faith in Regulators?

    2 mins read Quick Take | Apr 4, 2023 | Zach Tokura, Michael Hayes

    The write-down of Credit Suisse’s contingent convertible bonds to zero following its takeover by UBS has left investors questioning just how much risk there is in these instruments. Assurances from regulators don’t seem to have calmed markets.

    What Could Yield Curves Tell Us About Bond Values?

    3 mins read Blog | Mar 22, 2023 | Michael Hayes

    A corporate bond’s yield curve is similar to the well-known Treasury yield curve. Could the deviation of a corporate bond’s yield from the yield curve, or mispricing spread, be a useful signal for credit investors?

    How Far Could the Banking Panic Spread?

    2 mins read Quick Take | Mar 21, 2023 | Michael Hayes

    In the midst of the global banking crisis, looking at corporate-credit markets through a factor lens may provide a clue as to how much further the turmoil could spread.

    Is Silicon Valley Bank’s Failure a Sign of Deeper Trouble?

    2 mins read Quick Take | Mar 13, 2023 | Michael Hayes

    Factor analysis of corporate credit spreads following the failure of Silicon Valley Bank shows the bond market has recognized both issuer-specific and systematic consequences.

    Looking Beyond Japan to Understand Risks to the Yen

    7 mins read Blog | Sep 15, 2022 | Michael Hayes, Tamas Hanis

    By remaining steadfast in its commitment to zero yields, the Bank of Japan may have sacrificed the ability to control its own destiny. 

    Are Russian Stocks Worthless?

    3 mins read Blog | May 26, 2022 | Michael Hayes, Tamas Hanis, Zoltan Sass

    Investors in Russian securities have faced sizable hurdles trying to manage and value their positions. Our research of the CDS market suggests that Russian stocks are essentially worthless, in contrast to the prices listed on the Moscow Exchange.

    Assessing Private Infrastructure in a Multi-Asset-Class Portfolio

    4 mins read Blog | Aug 4, 2021 | Michael Hayes, Yang Liu

    Private infrastructure is a popular element of institutional capital allocations, and increased focus on renewable or carbon-neutral infrastructure may mean significant new investment opportunities. What role could it play in a multi-asset-class portfolio?

    Cross-Currency Credit Spreads: Mind the Gap

    5 mins read Blog | Feb 8, 2021 | Michael Hayes, Zach Tokura

    An issuer’s credit spread should be consistent when measured in the USD- or EUR-denominated markets, because both are measuring the same credit risk. Yet divergence can occur as a result of liquidity or supply-demand imbalances, such as those in the COVID crisis.

    Using Risk Analytics to Highlight Opportunities in Volatile Markets

    Blog | May 18, 2020 | Michael Hayes

    Risk analytics can serve many functions for an institutional investor, including compliance, risk management, portfolio management and trading and strategy development. They may also highlight new opportunities that may be unique to volatile markets.

    Managing risk-model uncertainty through a crisis

    Blog | Mar 27, 2020 | Michael Hayes

    The impact on risk policy has been similar across market crises, as investors consider how to use their models in the new regime. We describe adaptive modeling for internal and external risk policy, and long-view backtesting to support decision-making.

    Repo-market turmoil may not spell SOFR’s end

    Blog | Oct 24, 2019 | Michael Hayes, Maks Oks

    Investors and the media have begun to worry that the secured overnight financing rate (SOFR) — the U.S. interest-rate benchmark meant to address issues with and replace USD LIBOR — may introduce a new set of problems. Are the concerns justified?

    MSCI Multi-Asset Class (MAC) Factor Model Validation

    Research Report | Aug 20, 2019 | Michael Hayes, Balazs Vajda

    The MSCI Multi-Asset Class (MAC) Factor Model introduces several major advances in risk modeling, including systematic MAC strategy factors, a next-generation fixed income model, and improved equity models. This document demonstrates the value of the MSCI MAC Factor Model in forecasting risk, based on (1) visual inspection of the risk forecasts and realized returns, and (2) statistical tests. The MSCI MAC Factor Model is evaluated on an absolute (stand-alone) basis, and is also compared with...

    CDS Hedging: Exploring all the Options

    Blog | Jan 23, 2019 | Michael Hayes

    The credit-default-swap (CDS) market previously offered a cost-effective means to make short-term hedges or place bets on an individual issuer’s credit.

    Is the bond-equity hedge slipping away?

    Blog | Nov 1, 2018 | Michael Hayes, Thomas Verbraken

    In October, the 10-year U.S. Treasury yield hit a 7-year high in response to strong economic news, contributing to the second major equity sell-off this year.1 If positive moves in yield continue to drive down equities, this would mean an end to the hedge between stocks and bonds that has been in effect since around 2002. Investors may seek alternative means of diversification, with potentially deep ramifications for strategic asset allocation decisions and multi-asset class strategies.

    Best Practices for Predictive Stress Tests in RiskManager and BarraOne

    Research Report | Apr 17, 2013 | Michael Hayes, Audrey Costabile, Rachael Smith

    A predictive stress test based on historical data can be a valuable tool in contemplating large market shocks. When the degree of extrapolation becomes excessive, or the prediction is based on a tenuous historical correlation, the predictive stress test can lead to unintuitive results that do not conform to reasonable market and economic expectations. This Research Insight offers best practices for users of RiskManager and BarraOne who want to design stress tests with correlated factors;...

    Minimizing Shortfall

    Research Report | Jan 26, 2011 | Michael Hayes, Lisa Goldberg, Ola Mahmoud

    This paper describes an empirical study of shortfall optimization with Barra Extreme Risk. We compare minimum shortfall to minimum variance portfolios in the US, UK, and Japanese equity markets using Barra Style Factors (Value, Growth, Momentum, etc.). We show that minimizing shortfall generally improves performance over minimizing variance, especially during down-markets, over the period 1985-2010. The outperformance of shortfall is due to intuitive tilts towards protective factors like...

    Extreme Risk Analysis

    Research Report | Jul 27, 2010 | Michael Hayes, Lisa Goldberg, Jose Menchero, Indrajit Mitra

    Risk analysis involves gaining deeper insight into the sources of risk, and evaluating whether these risks accurately reflect the views of the portfolio manager. In this paper, we show how to extend standard volatility analytics to shortfall, a measure of extreme risk. Using two examples, we show how shortfall provides a more complete and intuitive picture of risk than value at risk. In two subsequent examples we illustrate the additional perspective offered by analyzing shortfall and...

    How Well Can the Risk of Financial Extremes Be Forecast?

    Research Report | Apr 13, 2010 | Michael Hayes, Vladislav Dubikovsky, Lisa Goldberg, Ming Liu

    Extreme events are an important source of financial risk, but they present special challenges in quantitative forecasting.  In this paper we describe an empirical approach to forecasting extreme risk and evaluate its accuracy out-of-sample on a range of factor-based strategies and pair trades.  Our results show that for a large majority of strategies, our model is more consistent with market behavior than a conditional Normal model.

    The Long View of Financial Risk

    Research Report | Jan 4, 2010 | Michael Hayes, Lisa Goldberg

    An extended history of market returns reveals aspects of financial risk that are not evident over short timescales. The most enduring risk measure is variance, which quantifies short-term regularities in return dispersion. An alternative measure, shortfall, quantifies the risk of extreme market moves, and calls for a deep history to inform its forecasts. Both variance and shortfall are convex, meaning that they tend to promote diversification and can be used in optimization. By offering a...

    Extreme Risk Management

    Research Report | Feb 1, 2009 | Michael Hayes, Lisa Goldberg, Jose Menchero, Indrajit Mitra

    Quantitative risk management relies on a constellation of tools that are used to analyze portfolio risk. We develop the standard toolkit, which includes betas, risk budgets and correlations, in a general, coherent, mnemonic framework centered around marginal risk contributions. We apply these tools to generate side-by-side analyses of volatility and expected shortfall, which is a measure of average portfolio excess of value-at-risk. We focus on two examples whose importance is highlighted by...

    Evaluating Risk Forecasts with Central Limits

    Research Report | Mar 1, 2008 | Michael Hayes, Vladislav Dubikovsky

    We show that for a diverse collection of 74 US equity portfolios, risk forecasts based on an extreme value theory model greatly outperform a conditional normal model with a 23-day halflife.